International Journal of Immunology

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The Science of Human Milk Oligosaccharides (HMO) for Developing Immunity and Healthy Digestive System in Newborn Infants Throughout Life

Received: 19 January 2024    Accepted: 2 February 2024    Published: 21 February 2024
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Abstract

Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) are the third most significant solid component in human milk, working in conjunction with other bioactive components. Numerous factors, including secretor status, race, geography, climate, season, maternal nutrition and weight, gestational age, and delivery method, significantly affect the individual HMO levels and distribution among mothers. In addition to strengthening the epithelial barrier, producing immunomodulatory metabolites, and promoting a gut microbiota rich in Bifidobacterium, HMO also help to enhance the gastrointestinal barrier. HMO perform a range of physiological roles, such as possible immune system support, brain growth, and cognitive function. HMO supplementation to infant formula is safe and supports the newborn's healthy growth, with benefits for infection prevention and the makeup of the microbiota. Through a thorough and methodical evaluation of relevant literature, this study investigated the complex interactions between gut microbiota, the immune system, and HMO in neonates. A sizable corpus of recently released original research publications and thorough review papers were examined in the review. SCOPUS, PubMed, and Google Scholar were reliable and strong sources of information. In addition to these, a few more trustworthy sources were consulted. By reading this article, readers will have a clear understanding of how HMO play a crucial role in influencing the dynamics of the gut microbiota and supporting the development of the immune system in newborns. The knowledge gained from these exchanges may help direct measures meant to improve the health of newborns. However, further investigation is necessary to identify certain underlying processes and possible treatment paths. It is unknown if HMO provide an extra clinical advantage over non-human oligosaccharides due to a lack of research comparing the effects of the two. Better study of the variables controlling HMO composition and their functions will assist to comprehend their short- and long-term advantages for Immunity and Healthy Digestive System in Newborn Infants Throughout Life.

DOI 10.11648/j.iji.20241201.11
Published in International Journal of Immunology (Volume 12, Issue 1, March 2024)
Page(s) 1-9
Creative Commons

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, provided the original work is properly cited.

Copyright

Copyright © The Author(s), 2024. Published by Science Publishing Group

Keywords

Human Milk Oligosaccharide, HMO, Human Milk, Breastfeeding, Microbiota, Immunity, Digestive System

References
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    Parvin, R., Hamid, N., Rahman, K., Khan, A. A., Rahat, F., et al. (2024). The Science of Human Milk Oligosaccharides (HMO) for Developing Immunity and Healthy Digestive System in Newborn Infants Throughout Life. International Journal of Immunology, 12(1), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.iji.20241201.11

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    Parvin, R.; Hamid, N.; Rahman, K.; Khan, A. A.; Rahat, F., et al. The Science of Human Milk Oligosaccharides (HMO) for Developing Immunity and Healthy Digestive System in Newborn Infants Throughout Life. Int. J. Immunol. 2024, 12(1), 1-9. doi: 10.11648/j.iji.20241201.11

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    Parvin R, Hamid N, Rahman K, Khan AA, Rahat F, et al. The Science of Human Milk Oligosaccharides (HMO) for Developing Immunity and Healthy Digestive System in Newborn Infants Throughout Life. Int J Immunol. 2024;12(1):1-9. doi: 10.11648/j.iji.20241201.11

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  • @article{10.11648/j.iji.20241201.11,
      author = {Ruma Parvin and Nazmul Hamid and Khadija Rahman and Ashfaque Ahemmed Khan and Farhana Rahat and Shakibur Rahman and Belayet Hossain and Ismail Ibne Rashid},
      title = {The Science of Human Milk Oligosaccharides (HMO) for Developing Immunity and Healthy Digestive System in Newborn Infants Throughout Life},
      journal = {International Journal of Immunology},
      volume = {12},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1-9},
      doi = {10.11648/j.iji.20241201.11},
      url = {https://doi.org/10.11648/j.iji.20241201.11},
      eprint = {https://article.sciencepublishinggroup.com/pdf/10.11648.j.iji.20241201.11},
      abstract = {Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) are the third most significant solid component in human milk, working in conjunction with other bioactive components. Numerous factors, including secretor status, race, geography, climate, season, maternal nutrition and weight, gestational age, and delivery method, significantly affect the individual HMO levels and distribution among mothers. In addition to strengthening the epithelial barrier, producing immunomodulatory metabolites, and promoting a gut microbiota rich in Bifidobacterium, HMO also help to enhance the gastrointestinal barrier. HMO perform a range of physiological roles, such as possible immune system support, brain growth, and cognitive function. HMO supplementation to infant formula is safe and supports the newborn's healthy growth, with benefits for infection prevention and the makeup of the microbiota. Through a thorough and methodical evaluation of relevant literature, this study investigated the complex interactions between gut microbiota, the immune system, and HMO in neonates. A sizable corpus of recently released original research publications and thorough review papers were examined in the review. SCOPUS, PubMed, and Google Scholar were reliable and strong sources of information. In addition to these, a few more trustworthy sources were consulted. By reading this article, readers will have a clear understanding of how HMO play a crucial role in influencing the dynamics of the gut microbiota and supporting the development of the immune system in newborns. The knowledge gained from these exchanges may help direct measures meant to improve the health of newborns. However, further investigation is necessary to identify certain underlying processes and possible treatment paths. It is unknown if HMO provide an extra clinical advantage over non-human oligosaccharides due to a lack of research comparing the effects of the two. Better study of the variables controlling HMO composition and their functions will assist to comprehend their short- and long-term advantages for Immunity and Healthy Digestive System in Newborn Infants Throughout Life.
    },
     year = {2024}
    }
    

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    AU  - Nazmul Hamid
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    AB  - Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) are the third most significant solid component in human milk, working in conjunction with other bioactive components. Numerous factors, including secretor status, race, geography, climate, season, maternal nutrition and weight, gestational age, and delivery method, significantly affect the individual HMO levels and distribution among mothers. In addition to strengthening the epithelial barrier, producing immunomodulatory metabolites, and promoting a gut microbiota rich in Bifidobacterium, HMO also help to enhance the gastrointestinal barrier. HMO perform a range of physiological roles, such as possible immune system support, brain growth, and cognitive function. HMO supplementation to infant formula is safe and supports the newborn's healthy growth, with benefits for infection prevention and the makeup of the microbiota. Through a thorough and methodical evaluation of relevant literature, this study investigated the complex interactions between gut microbiota, the immune system, and HMO in neonates. A sizable corpus of recently released original research publications and thorough review papers were examined in the review. SCOPUS, PubMed, and Google Scholar were reliable and strong sources of information. In addition to these, a few more trustworthy sources were consulted. By reading this article, readers will have a clear understanding of how HMO play a crucial role in influencing the dynamics of the gut microbiota and supporting the development of the immune system in newborns. The knowledge gained from these exchanges may help direct measures meant to improve the health of newborns. However, further investigation is necessary to identify certain underlying processes and possible treatment paths. It is unknown if HMO provide an extra clinical advantage over non-human oligosaccharides due to a lack of research comparing the effects of the two. Better study of the variables controlling HMO composition and their functions will assist to comprehend their short- and long-term advantages for Immunity and Healthy Digestive System in Newborn Infants Throughout Life.
    
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Author Information
  • Department of Pediatrics (Neonatal Intensive Care Unit), Dr. MR Khan Shishu Hospital & ICH, Dhaka, Bangladesh

  • Department of Pediatrics, Combined Military Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh

  • Department of Pediatrics (Neonatal Intensive Care Unit), Dr. MR Khan Shishu Hospital & ICH, Dhaka, Bangladesh

  • Department of Pediatrics, Combined Military Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh

  • Department of Pediatrics (Neonatal Intensive Care Unit), Dr. MR Khan Shishu Hospital & ICH, Dhaka, Bangladesh

  • Department of Pediatrics (Neonatal Intensive Care Unit), Dr. MR Khan Shishu Hospital & ICH, Dhaka, Bangladesh

  • Department of Pediatrics (Neonatal Intensive Care Unit), Dr. MR Khan Shishu Hospital & ICH, Dhaka, Bangladesh

  • Department of Pediatrics (Neonatal Intensive Care Unit), Dr. MR Khan Shishu Hospital & ICH, Dhaka, Bangladesh

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