The GEM (Gravity EM) unification theory builds on the Sakharov and Kaluza-Klein approaches to unify all four force fields of nature: Gravity, EM, Strong, and Weak using Feynman Path integral formalism. The model is rudimentary, and can be called a “Bohr Model” of unification. It is basically found that Gravity and the other forces can be understood as quantum electrodynamics. In particular the proton emerges as a fundamental particle despite being composed of quarks and is the principle interaction vertex of the Higgs boson, which is seen here as direct consequence of a hidden 5th dimension, where the Higgs mass is due to 5th dimensional compactification. Collapse and compactification of a 5th dimension is argued as the triggering event for the Big Bang. A particle mass formula based on Feynman Path Integrals including paths across the hidden 5th dimension gives the proton and electron masses to high accuracy and finds the charged bosons responsible for the short range nuclear forces. The masses calculated for the particles are as follows: the charged pion m = 2 me / 140.0 MeV and W boson: mw =2 mp = 80.4 GeV. The c meson m =2985 GeV is identified with the 5th dimension compactification force mediated by the Radion field. The Higgs boson associated with this mass inducing field is the most general EM+Radion scattering quanta off the hidden dimension size with a mass mp/α 127.7 GeV. This results in a structural resonance Higgs = rp where Higgs is the Compton radius of the Higgs boson and Higgs =c/mHiggsc2 the rp electro-dynamic length of the proton rp=e2/mpc2. Vacuum decay results from this value of the Higgs boson mass, which is a key parameter in a mass system that creates the proton-electron mass system and thus hydrogen in the Big Bang. The vacuum is found to decay into proton-electron pairs and to give an “eternally inflating” cosmos of Hubble Time TH ( 9/ )1/3 /2 e2 /(4oGmemp ) re/c = 1.2 x1010 years. The predicted value of the CBR(Cosmic Background Radiation) temperature from this vacuum decay is TCBR (4cGme2/(3Th2Stefan-Boltz.)1/3 = 2.65K Support for this consists of observation of the failure of the Sunaeyev-Zeldovich effect, where distant galaxies are not observed to cast shadows in the CBR indicating a source for the CBR in the vacuum itself in the line of sight to more distant galaxies.
Published in |
International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science (Volume 2, Issue 6-1)
This article belongs to the Special Issue Quantum Vacuum, Fundamental Arena of the Universe: Models, Applications and Perspectives |
DOI | 10.11648/j.ijass.s.2014020601.14 |
Page(s) | 24-38 |
Creative Commons |
This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, provided the original work is properly cited. |
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Copyright © The Author(s), 2015. Published by Science Publishing Group |
GEM Unification Theory, Mie Scattering, Structural Resonance, Kaluza-Klein Theory, Radion Vacuum Decay, Suneayev-Zeldovich Effect
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[4] | Brandenburg, J.E.: The Value of the Gravitation Constant and its Relation to Cosmic Electrodynamics, IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, Plasma Cosmology Issue Vol. 35, No. 4., p845, 2007. |
[5] | Brandenburg J.E.: A Derivation of the Newton Gravitation Constant and the Proton Mass from the GEM Unification Theory of Baryo-Genesis.” Journal of Cosmology Volume 17, 2011. |
[6] | Klein, Oskar: "Quantum Theory and Five-Dimensional Relativity Zeitschrift fur Physik, 37, 895, 1926. |
[7] | Sakharov A.D.: “Vacuum quantum fluctuations in curved space and the theory of gravitation” Sov. Phys. Doklady 12,1040-1041, 1968. |
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APA Style
John E. Brandenburg. (2015). The GEM Unification Theory of the Vacuum: Did Dimensional Collapse Trigger the Big Bang. International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science, 2(6-1), 24-38. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijass.s.2014020601.14
ACS Style
John E. Brandenburg. The GEM Unification Theory of the Vacuum: Did Dimensional Collapse Trigger the Big Bang. Int. J. Astrophys. Space Sci. 2015, 2(6-1), 24-38. doi: 10.11648/j.ijass.s.2014020601.14
AMA Style
John E. Brandenburg. The GEM Unification Theory of the Vacuum: Did Dimensional Collapse Trigger the Big Bang. Int J Astrophys Space Sci. 2015;2(6-1):24-38. doi: 10.11648/j.ijass.s.2014020601.14
@article{10.11648/j.ijass.s.2014020601.14, author = {John E. Brandenburg}, title = {The GEM Unification Theory of the Vacuum: Did Dimensional Collapse Trigger the Big Bang}, journal = {International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science}, volume = {2}, number = {6-1}, pages = {24-38}, doi = {10.11648/j.ijass.s.2014020601.14}, url = {https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijass.s.2014020601.14}, eprint = {https://article.sciencepublishinggroup.com/pdf/10.11648.j.ijass.s.2014020601.14}, abstract = {The GEM (Gravity EM) unification theory builds on the Sakharov and Kaluza-Klein approaches to unify all four force fields of nature: Gravity, EM, Strong, and Weak using Feynman Path integral formalism. The model is rudimentary, and can be called a “Bohr Model” of unification. It is basically found that Gravity and the other forces can be understood as quantum electrodynamics. In particular the proton emerges as a fundamental particle despite being composed of quarks and is the principle interaction vertex of the Higgs boson, which is seen here as direct consequence of a hidden 5th dimension, where the Higgs mass is due to 5th dimensional compactification. Collapse and compactification of a 5th dimension is argued as the triggering event for the Big Bang. A particle mass formula based on Feynman Path Integrals including paths across the hidden 5th dimension gives the proton and electron masses to high accuracy and finds the charged bosons responsible for the short range nuclear forces. The masses calculated for the particles are as follows: the charged pion m = 2 me / 140.0 MeV and W boson: mw =2 mp = 80.4 GeV. The c meson m =2985 GeV is identified with the 5th dimension compactification force mediated by the Radion field. The Higgs boson associated with this mass inducing field is the most general EM+Radion scattering quanta off the hidden dimension size with a mass mp/α 127.7 GeV. This results in a structural resonance Higgs = rp where Higgs is the Compton radius of the Higgs boson and Higgs =c/mHiggsc2 the rp electro-dynamic length of the proton rp=e2/mpc2. Vacuum decay results from this value of the Higgs boson mass, which is a key parameter in a mass system that creates the proton-electron mass system and thus hydrogen in the Big Bang. The vacuum is found to decay into proton-electron pairs and to give an “eternally inflating” cosmos of Hubble Time TH ( 9/ )1/3 /2 e2 /(4oGmemp ) re/c = 1.2 x1010 years. The predicted value of the CBR(Cosmic Background Radiation) temperature from this vacuum decay is TCBR (4cGme2/(3Th2Stefan-Boltz.)1/3 = 2.65K Support for this consists of observation of the failure of the Sunaeyev-Zeldovich effect, where distant galaxies are not observed to cast shadows in the CBR indicating a source for the CBR in the vacuum itself in the line of sight to more distant galaxies.}, year = {2015} }
TY - JOUR T1 - The GEM Unification Theory of the Vacuum: Did Dimensional Collapse Trigger the Big Bang AU - John E. Brandenburg Y1 - 2015/03/27 PY - 2015 N1 - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijass.s.2014020601.14 DO - 10.11648/j.ijass.s.2014020601.14 T2 - International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science JF - International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science JO - International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science SP - 24 EP - 38 PB - Science Publishing Group SN - 2376-7022 UR - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijass.s.2014020601.14 AB - The GEM (Gravity EM) unification theory builds on the Sakharov and Kaluza-Klein approaches to unify all four force fields of nature: Gravity, EM, Strong, and Weak using Feynman Path integral formalism. The model is rudimentary, and can be called a “Bohr Model” of unification. It is basically found that Gravity and the other forces can be understood as quantum electrodynamics. In particular the proton emerges as a fundamental particle despite being composed of quarks and is the principle interaction vertex of the Higgs boson, which is seen here as direct consequence of a hidden 5th dimension, where the Higgs mass is due to 5th dimensional compactification. Collapse and compactification of a 5th dimension is argued as the triggering event for the Big Bang. A particle mass formula based on Feynman Path Integrals including paths across the hidden 5th dimension gives the proton and electron masses to high accuracy and finds the charged bosons responsible for the short range nuclear forces. The masses calculated for the particles are as follows: the charged pion m = 2 me / 140.0 MeV and W boson: mw =2 mp = 80.4 GeV. The c meson m =2985 GeV is identified with the 5th dimension compactification force mediated by the Radion field. The Higgs boson associated with this mass inducing field is the most general EM+Radion scattering quanta off the hidden dimension size with a mass mp/α 127.7 GeV. This results in a structural resonance Higgs = rp where Higgs is the Compton radius of the Higgs boson and Higgs =c/mHiggsc2 the rp electro-dynamic length of the proton rp=e2/mpc2. Vacuum decay results from this value of the Higgs boson mass, which is a key parameter in a mass system that creates the proton-electron mass system and thus hydrogen in the Big Bang. The vacuum is found to decay into proton-electron pairs and to give an “eternally inflating” cosmos of Hubble Time TH ( 9/ )1/3 /2 e2 /(4oGmemp ) re/c = 1.2 x1010 years. The predicted value of the CBR(Cosmic Background Radiation) temperature from this vacuum decay is TCBR (4cGme2/(3Th2Stefan-Boltz.)1/3 = 2.65K Support for this consists of observation of the failure of the Sunaeyev-Zeldovich effect, where distant galaxies are not observed to cast shadows in the CBR indicating a source for the CBR in the vacuum itself in the line of sight to more distant galaxies. VL - 2 IS - 6-1 ER -